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e-book The Scofield Bible Commentary: Pauls Epistle to the Romans

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Galatians by C. The external evidence of authenticity could indeed hardly be stronger; and it is altogether borne out by the internal evidence, linguistic, stylistic, literary, historical and theological. The letter was most probably written while Paul was in Corinth , probably while he was staying in the house of Gaius , and transcribed by Tertius , his amanuensis. Paul was about to travel to Jerusalem on writing the letter, which matches Acts [Acts ] where it is reported that Paul stayed for three months in Greece.

This probably implies Corinth as it was the location of Paul's greatest missionary success in Greece. The precise time at which it was written is not mentioned in the epistle, but it was obviously written when the collection for Jerusalem had been assembled and Paul was about to "go unto Jerusalem to minister unto the saints", that is, at the close of his second visit to Greece, during the winter preceding his last visit to that city.

There is strong, albeit indirect, evidence that a recension of Romans that lacked Chapters 15 and 16 was widely used in the western half of the Roman Empire until the mid-4th century. The fact that Paul's doxology is placed in various different places in different manuscripts of Romans only strengthens the case for an early fourteen-chapter recension. While there is some uncertainty, Harry Gamble concludes that the canonical sixteen-chapter recension is likely the earlier version of the text. The Codex Boernerianus lacks the explicit references to the Roman church as the audience of the epistle found in Romans and There is evidence from patristic commentaries indicating that Boernarianus is not unique in this regard; many early, no longer extant manuscripts also lacked an explicit Roman addressee in Chapter 1.

Harry Gamble speculates that , , and Chapters 15 and 16 may have been removed by a scribe in order to make the epistle more suitable for a "general" audience. It is quite possible that a fifteen-chapter form of Romans, omitting Chapter 16, may have existed at an early date. Several scholars have argued, largely on the basis of internal evidence, that Chapter 16 represents a separate letter of Paul— possibly addressed to Ephesus — that was later appended to Romans. There are a few different arguments for this conclusion. First of all, there is a concluding peace benediction at , which reads like the other Pauline benedictions that conclude their respective letters.

Secondly, Paul greets a large number of people and families in Chapter 16, in a way that suggests he was already familiar with them, whereas the material of Chapters presupposes that Paul has never met anyone from the Roman church. The fact that Papyrus 46 places Paul's doxology at the end of Chapter 15 can also be interpreted as evidence for the existence of a fifteen-chapter recension of the epistle.

For ten years before writing the letter approx.

Paul's Teaching on Hell | thebvbs

The letter to the Romans, in part, prepares them and gives reasons for his visit. In addition to Paul's geographic location, his religious views are important. His concern for his people is one part of the dialogue and runs throughout the letter. Second, the other side of the dialogue is Paul's conversion and calling to follow Christ in the early 30s. The most probable ancient account of the beginning of Christianity in Rome is given by a 4th-century writer known as Ambrosiaster : [17].

It is established that there were Jews living in Rome in the times of the Apostles , and that those Jews who had believed [in Christ] passed on to the Romans the tradition that they ought to profess Christ but keep the law [Torah] One ought not to condemn the Romans, but to praise their faith, because without seeing any signs or miracles and without seeing any of the apostles, they nevertheless accepted faith in Christ, although according to a Jewish rite.

The occasion of writing the epistle Paul had made acquaintance with all circumstances of the Christians at Rome At this time, the Jews made up a substantial number in Rome, and their synagogues , frequented by many, enabled the Gentiles to become acquainted with the story of Jesus of Nazareth. Consequently, churches composed of both Jews and Gentiles were formed at Rome. According to Irenaeus , a 2nd-century Church Father , the church at Rome was founded directly by the apostles Peter and Paul.

Many of the brethren went out to meet Paul on his approach to Rome. There is evidence that Christians were then in Rome in considerable numbers and probably had more than one place of meeting. Note the large number of names in Romans —15 of those then in Rome, and verses 5, 15 and 16 indicate there was more than one church assembly or company of believers in Rome. Verse 5 mentions a church that met in the house of Aquila and Priscilla.

Verses 14 and 15 each mention groupings of believers and saints. Jews were expelled from Rome because of disturbances around AD 49 by the edict of Claudius. Fitzmyer argues that with the return of the Jews to Rome in 54 new conflict arose between the Gentile Christians and the Jewish Christians who had formerly been expelled.

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Scholars often have difficulty assessing whether Romans is a letter or an epistle , a relevant distinction in form-critical analysis:. A letter is something non-literary, a means of communication between persons who are separated from each other. Confidential and personal in nature, it is intended only for the person or persons to whom it is addressed, and not at all for the public or any kind of publicity An Epistle is an artistic literary form, just like the dialogue, the oration, or the drama.

It has nothing in common with the letter except its form: apart from that one might venture the paradox that the epistle is the opposite of a real letter. The contents of the epistle are intended for publicity—they aim at interesting "the public.

Joseph Fitzmyer argues, from evidence put forth by Stirewalt, that the style of Romans is an "essay-letter. There are also many "noteworthy elements" missing from Romans that are included in other areas of the Pauline corpus. Baur in when he suggested "this letter had to be interpreted according to the historical circumstances in which Paul wrote it.

The Holy Bible - Book 45 - Romans - KJV Dramatized Audio

Paul sometimes uses a style of writing common in his time called a "diatribe". He appears to be responding to a "heckler" probably an imaginary one based on Paul's encounters with real objections in his previous preaching , and the letter is structured as a series of arguments. In the flow of the letter, Paul shifts his arguments, sometimes addressing the Jewish members of the church, sometimes the Gentile membership and sometimes the church as a whole.

To review the current scholarly viewpoints on the purpose of Romans, along with a bibliography, see Dictionary of Paul and His Letters. In his prologue to his translation of the book of Romans, which was largely taken from the prologue of German Reformer Martin Luther , Tyndale writes that:. The sum and whole cause of the writings of this epistle, is, to prove that a man is justified by faith only: which proposition whoso denieth, to him is not only this epistle and all that Paul writeth, but also the whole scripture, so locked up that he shall never understand it to his soul's health.

And to bring a man to the understanding and feeling that faith only justifieth, Paul proveth that the whole nature of man is so poisoned and so corrupt, yea and so dead concerning godly living or godly thinking, that it is impossible for her to keep the law in the sight of God. This essay-letter composed by Paul was written to a specific audience at a specific time; to understand it, the situations of both Paul and the recipients must be understood. The introduction [Rom —16] provides some general notes about Paul. He introduces his apostleship here and introductory notes about the gospel he wishes to preach to the church at Rome.

Jesus' human line stems from David.

Romans - Introduction

Paul's goal is that the Gentiles would also hear the gospel. He commends the Romans for their faith. These two verses form a backdrop for the rest of the book. First, we note that Paul is unashamed of his love for this gospel that he preaches about Jesus Christ.

He also notes that he is speaking to the "Jew first. We are hard-pressed to find an answer to such a question without knowing more about the audience in question.

Original 1917 Scofield Reference Study Bible book of Romans

Paul may have used the "Jew first" approach to counter such a view. Paul begins with a summary of Hellenistic Jewish apologist discourse. Paul draws heavily here from the Wisdom of Solomon. Several scholars believe the passage is a non-Pauline interpolation. On the traditional Protestant interpretation, Paul here calls out Jews who are condemning others for not following the law when they themselves are also not following the law. Stowers writes, "There is absolutely no justification for reading —5 as Paul's attack on 'the hypocrisy of the Jew.

That popular interpretation depends upon anachronistically reading later Christian characterizations of Jews as 'hypocritical Pharisees '". Paul says that a righteousness from God has made itself known apart from the law, to which the law and prophets testify, and this righteousness from God comes through faith in Jesus to all who believe. In chapters five through eight, Paul argues that believers can be assured of their hope in salvation , having been freed from the bondage of sin. Paul teaches that through faith , [] [] the faithful have been joined with Jesus [] and freed from sin.

Valuable notes on the Greek text are provided, while introductory and background matter is omitted. His thoroughly Christ-centered view of Scripture comes through clearly in his extensive nine vol. According to Joel R. Much more than a dictionary, this work provides encyclopedic and theological treatment on all the words in the Bible. The Church Pulpit Commentary includes work by various important members of the church such as Thomas Arnold who was a supporter of the Broad Anglican Church Movement, English theologian and socialist Rev.